When people talk about cannabis in any measure, there tend to be two words that we hear again and again: Indica and Sativa. It is pretty easy for one to infer from conversation that these are the two different types of cannabis plant, but understanding what that actually means requires a little further analysis.
Cannabis Indica is the shorter, bushier plant of the two. This specie's origins lie in the region containing Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Bangladesh; where it first started growing in the mountainous regions. Indica plants are much more suited for indoor growth, and has unique chemical makeup that differentiates its medicinal capabilities from that of its counterpart. The CBD (Cannabidiol) content of Cannabis Indica is much higher than that of Cannabis Sativa. This makes Indica a much more desirable species for things like pain relief and sleep issues. On average, Indica actually has a higher THC to CBD ratio than Sativa, however it varies wildly over the different strains of both species. The effect of the Indica plant is often described as a "body high", and is a very mellow, calming effect. The terpenoid composition in the essential oil of the plant are the root of the effects unique to this species. Some common Indica strains are Kush and Northern Lights.
Cannabis Sativa, on the other hand, is a tall thin species of cannabis that produces different effects than that of Cannabis Indica. This species of cannabis thrive in more tropical climates, and originate from regions near the equator. The Sativa plant is much better suited to outdoor climates, where it can grow to be incredibly tall. This type of cannabis has some very different effects than that of Indica. Sativa is often described as being the "head high", and contains a much more invigorating effect. It is a cerebral high that is a huge help to those with anxiety issues, and its high CBD to THC ratio increases appetite to help those with anorexia or eating disorders.
There are many other differences between the two species of Cannabis plant. Cannabis Sativa and Cannabis Indica both produce very unique effects, and understanding the difference between the two can help us to understand the medicinal potential of Cannabis.